Brodmann’s Associative Areas: Determining Functional Deficits

The purpose of the S Loreta Z score current source density information is to identify deficit functional areas and to train those areas by making use of neurofeedback training. This information plays a significant role in validating an individual’s functional deficits and to correlate with the clinical history available.

In 1994 a researcher Dr. Roberto Pascual Marqui updated a mathematical theorem showing that the generators of electrical activity inside of the 3 dimensional surface or head consisting of skin skull and cerabral cortex can be localized. It also localizes activity in nearby structures such as the parahippocampal gyrus, insular cortex and other internal temporal lobe structures.

The best most accurate method Pascual Margui described was Loreta.

The individual’s raw scores are compared to standardized Z scores which represent the normal population.

The location of abnormal discharge is indicated by the Z scores which focus upon the 47 areas of Brodmann in which the brain is divided.

Loreta Z scores indicate associative Brodmann areas with functional deficits such as epilepsy, working, spatial-and short term memory, motor control impairment, limited auditory processing and processing of other functions such as emotional processing, word generation and sentence construction, verbal fluency, executive functioning, sensory integration impairment of various cognitive functions including concentration and attentional processing. Impairment of mathematical skills and behaviour disturbances which are associated with specific associative areas are functions indicated by the Z scores.

The tables below indicate the areas that produce insufficient or slow wave activity, indicated by blue patches on the head maps and the areas that produce excess power are indicated by red patches on the head maps.

What further, how can we help?

The brain is powered by electricity and produces electrical patterns called brainwaves, which determine the level of arousal of the brain.  The more aroused the brain is, the better the functioning.  The lesser the level of arousal, the less effective is the activity and thought processing of the brain.  If the brain is too aroused, we experience, hyperactivity, high tension levels, aggression, panic.  If the brain is under aroused, we suffer from under activity, the typical couch potato, we can’t focus or concentrate, we feel depressed and lethargic.

The new database discussed above brings us close to the various Brodmann areas, and training or treatment can be spot on. How do we do it?

Brain waves are monitored by placing sensors or electrodes on the scalp, which register the electrical signals inside of the brain over specific associative areas. Brainwaves carry messages to and from all parts of the body through the nervous system.  Breathing, heartbeat, muscle coordination, metabolism, blood sugar levels, memory, attention, learning, emotions and all cognitive functioning or mental activity are controlled by brainwaves.

During neurofeedback, the brainwaves are monitored. NF is non-invasive, in other words no impulses go into the brain.  How does the training work?  Operant conditioning is a process through which the brain gets visual and auditory feedback when it produces productive and effective brain frequencies.

When the brain produces ineffective frequencies, in other words, if the brain is either over or under aroused, problems are experienced such as:

ADD/ADHD                                          Learning disabilities                       Depression

Bipolar disorder                                   Anxiety disorder                             Panic attacks

Aggression and rage                          Conduct disorder                              Chronic pain

Cognitive impairment                      Chronic pain                                     Traumatic brain injury

Stroke                                                     Sleep dysregulation                        Epilepsy

Post traumatic stress                         Dissociative disorders                     Autism and PDD

Reactive attachment disorder        Migraine and headaches               Exam stress

Noticeable results occur normally during the first ten sessions. Since neurofeedback is a process, this form of treatment requires a significant number of sessions to ensure consistent and lasting benefits.  The brain learns a new pattern.  Like learning to play an instrument, one needs a lot of practice.  Changes are normally seen with symptoms disappearing and identifiable abnormalities in EEG are changed with epilepsy or petit mal epilepsy. Typical EEG patterns seen with ADD kids also change from generalized slowing to normal frequencies. The most common effects reported: improved sleep, better focus and concentration, less anxiety, improvement of academic abilities and more stable emotions.

Research and scientific development open new ways to assist people to address functional deficits. The S Loreta current density Z scores indicate specific Brodmann areas in the brain which don’t function effectively and focus on specific frequencies that cause poor efficacy.

Dr Annemie Peché     0823356133