EMOTIONAL UNSTABLE PERSONALITY DISORDER SYMPTOMS EUPDØ Suicidal ideation and self-harm thoughts & behaviourØ Feelings of loneliness, emptiness, boredom, alienation, and intense sadnessØ Own thoughts often drive them to these feelings and experiencesØ Clinging dependency, sense of desperation in relation to the absence of (or fear of rejection or abandonment) by significant others
Ø The presence of melancholic symptoms is rare
Ø Neurotransmitters not involved & the condition is unlikely to be due to chemical instability of the brainØ Extreme reactions to feeling abandonedØ Confused about who they are & unstable sense of self
Ø Highly changeable and unstable mood & intense emotions which are often variableØ Instability of negative affectØ The depression is often not so intense
Ø Individuals with personality issues often present with depressive symptoms. It is often difficult to distinguish between MDD and individual with personality difficulty
Ø A deep sense of inner badness, accompanied by a merciless attack on the selfØ Difficulty controlling anger. For example, losing temper or getting into fights.Ø Unstable relationships with others.
Ø difficulty understanding other people’s points of view,
Ø difficulty staying in work,
Ø difficulty having a long-term relationship
Ø relationships are jeopardized due to attitude and a negative focusØ Presence of paranoiaØ Strong emotions that the individual finds difficult to cope with, normally uncontrollable
Ø The impulsive type of EUPD manifests in behaviour difficulties and poor anger controlØ Often individuals misuse alcohol and prescription drugs
Ø Unable coping to maintain a home.Ø Impulsive behaviour and angry feelings.
Ø Associated with substance abuse, reckless driving, and binge eating – this is often associated with self-harm behaviour.
Ø Characterized by dysregulation of emotions and impulsesØ Reasons: traumatic life events or extreme abuse
Ø Not genetic but manipulation plays a role and to thrive on negative attention has the expected affect on others – so the manipulation continues
Ø The most significant evidence that this depression is not a variant of depressive disorder and that treatment of depression does not result in remission of the symptoms: A longitudinal study found that effective treatment of a depression associated with personality difficulties tends to result in remission of depression, and antidepressants often show only modest benefit for depressive symptoms in EUPD but this is temporary
Ø Some of the following symptoms of MDD occur but are short-lived and often due to immediate reaction to circumstances
Ø The depth and level of severity of depression is different from MDD but often changes suddenlyØ Short-lived impairment of energyØ Lack of interest in usual activities
Ø Occasional sleep disturbance (which may involve insomnia or hypersomnia)Ø Weight loss or gain, increased suicidal ideation (often associated with self-harming behaviour)
Ø Anhedonia or inability to feel pleasure in normally pleasurable activities are present but often short-lived and variableØ Sense of worthlessness, often variable and changes to more positive feelingsØ Short-lived concentration and attention, difficultiesØ Impairment of functioning (on social, occupational, or other levels).
Ø Sexual interest present
Ø Previously, psychiatrists would not usually diagnose EUPD in someone who is under 18, but more recently they are diagnosing young people with BPD.
MAJOR DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS MDD
Ø Deep depression and dark feelingsØ Often genetic
Ø DysthymicØ Melancholy is a subtype of depression. People with melancholic depression often feel extreme despair and guilt. They may struggle to feel any happiness, even when good things happen in their lives
Ø Depression also reflects or manifests physically
Ø Neurotransmitters involvedØ MDD and bipolar disorders commonly co-occur with depression
Ø MDD presents with definite depressive symptoms
Ø Self-rejection and guilt is secondaryØ Poor anger management much less frequent
Ø No prominent anger in a work situation or interpersonal relations
Ø Relatively good interpersonal relations and understanding of others
Ø Depression is a more consistent feeling
Ø Suicide ideation is not generally associated with constant threats and therefore the focus on substance abuse is less
Ø Somehow manages although the depression often leaves them inactive/passive
Ø Less impulse dyscontrol noticedØ Probably genetic or chemical imbalanceØ geneticØ Anti-depressants generally effective
Ø Consistently lowered mood for at least 2 weeks, significant impairment of energy, limited interest in usual activities, sleep disturbance (which may involve insomnia or hypersomnia), weight loss or gain, anhedonia, or inability to feel pleasure in normally pleasurable activities.
Ø No sexual interest
Ø Negative feelings/depression less variable and consistent
Ø Attention and concentration affected by the severity of the mood
Ø Depression has been noticed in very young children